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Uromastyx Diet



Bee Pollen

Bee pollen is a natural appetite stimulant. If you try feeding it to your uromastyx, you may find that the lizard may or may not be interested - it varies with the individual. Bee pollen is a good source of vitamin, but should be limited to once a week at most, as it is high in vegetable proteins. Additionally if you feed a lot of flowers (primarily during spring/summertime), you need not use it as often.

Bee Pollen as a superficial remedy

The use of bee pollen by some may be bypassing a serious underlying issue, which is why the lizard’s diet need stimulated in the first place. Lack of appetite can be due to more prosaic reasons - acclimatisation, brumation - or it can also be due to serious issues, such as impaction, parasitic infection (you should a stool sample checked at least once a year at the vet), incorrect husbandry (temperatures, diet, UVB, and so on). If it’s been eating well before and has recently become picky, that’s usually a warning sign, if it can’t be attributed to something like acclimatisation or brumation.
It is important to remember that the uromastyx is a wild animal living indoors; if it’s hungry, it’ll eat, and if it doesn't eat (which will be in conflict with one of its most basic instincts), that’s usually a sign that something is abnormal and an indication that you should check the basic things listed above.

Calcium:Phosphorous ratio

The calcium to phosphorus ratio represents the amount of calcium as compared to the amount of phosphorus in your lizard's diet. While both are needed, you should aim to have a ratio of at least 2:1 (twice as much calcium as phosphorus), because each gram of phosphorus requires at least one matching gram of calcium in order for phosphorus to be absorbed by the lizard's intestinal wall. If your lizard is not provided with enough corresponding calcium, it will begin to lose calcium content from its bones, ultimately resulting in metabolic bone disease.

Adding Calcium Powder

As long as a good varied diet is provided for your uromastyx, they should get plenty of calcium without relying on supplements. You can also add supplements to their diet to provide sufficient calcium if there is not enough coming strictly from food. Products such as MinerALL provide additional calcium for uromastyx, but should not be used on a daily basis. It has been recommended by some long-time keepers/breeders that a small sprinkle once a week is sufficient for healthy adult uromastyx, and twice week for captive-bred hatchlings up to one year old. A sickly uromastyx may also benefit from other vitamin supplements.

False Dandelion

General Warning
When picking any wild-picked plant or flower intended for human or uromastyx consumption: always make absolutely sure that it has not had weedkiller sprayed on the area where it is growing, for at least the past two years. Many weedkillers can take a long time to disperse their poisons, and any growing plants may be tainted. This applies more to gardens and urban areas than to countryside, but it is still a danger in any environment (farmers may want to kill weeds in the countryside, for example).

False Dandelion

There are many small, yellow-flowering plants that look rather like dandelions. They are not, however, and many of them are not even in the same species of plant. Common lookalike plants to watch out for include:
 Hypochoeris radicata or Catsear, which actually bears the common name "false dandelion" - note that this one is known to be safely edible
 members of the Tragopogon family
 members of the Asteraceae family
 a common example is Tussilago farfara, better known as Coltsfoot.

Making sure

As a point of fact, there are literally hundreds of small yellow-flowered plants, many of which look similar to or almost identical to the common dandelion (Taraxicum officinale). Some of these are human-edible and therefore probably also okay for your uromastyx, but unless you are absolutely, completely, one hundred percent sure that you know which is which, then the best advice is not to feed them at all. You can find some websites detailing lists of dandelion lookalikes; a search for false dandelion is a good place to start. Any other foods should be compared against the list of food.

Herbivore

A herbivore is an animal that has adapted to eat plants. While some argue that uromastyx are in fact omnivores (creatures including humans which have adapted to eat any available food source, be it plant or animal), and this is certainly true as they have been observed to eat insects, your lizard should nonetheless be treated as a strict herbivore and fed on a greens-and-seeds diet, as the feeding of insects has been observed to cause intestinal and other internal problems with uromastyx.

Impaction

What is impaction?

Impaction is when loose material from the lizard's substrate - particles of sand or dirt, for example - are eaten or otherwise ingested, and collect to form a mass inside the lizard's stomach. This can cause numerous problems, including internal cutting and bleeding, difficulties in defecation, and large masses of material sticking together inside the lizard's stomach (a particular problem with fine-grained powdery substrates such as Calci-sand, which you should never use).

How to avoid impaction

The best method of avoiding the risk of impaction is to house your lizard on a non-ingestible substrate, such as newspaper, paper towels, slate, or similar. Additionally, you should always house young uromastyx on these types of materials; washed playsand is an acceptible substrate only once the lizard has exceeded 18cm (7") in length. Additionally food should always be fresh and moist to provide as much ingestion of moisture as possible. A dehydrated Uro is much more susceptible to impaction.

What to do if your uromastyx is impacted

Generally the problem should sort itself, but if you see any strange colours or lumps in your lizard's defecation, you should contact a reptile vet immediately - and try to make sure, if possible that the vet has experience with uromastyx, as many aspects (diet, conditions) of uromastyx care differ from that of other common lizards.

Insects

Feeding insects

This is a tricky issue in uromastyx husbandry. Although many caresheets indicate the feeding of crickets and mealworms, particularly to young uromastyx for additional protein intake, it is the considered opinion of experienced uromastyx owners that these are not good food items and that the uromastyx should be treated as a strict herbivore. An uromastyx' digestive track is geared towards the vegetables in its diet and may not be able to sufficiently digest the high protien levels present when eating insects. Tough carapaces also present a risk of impaction and internal bleeding.

Consumption of insects in the wild


Although a topic of hot debate among uromastyx keepers and breeders, there seems to be a mounting body of evidence to suggest that uromastyx do not, in fact, eat many insects in the wild. Troy Jones has corresponded with Danny Molco, co-author of Ornate Spiny-tail Lizards and Study of wild populations of Uromastyx along with Ben David Osnat, and has been kind enough to share the details of his correspondence with the UroWiki. These can be viewed on the UroWiki forums:


List of Food

Definitions


Regularity


The foodstuffs listed below are divided into three main categories - staples, rotationals and occasionals - as well as seeds, which are given their own listing. In most cases, the best guide is simply common sense: don't feed an occasional to your uromastyx for two weeks in a row. Variety is the key. For example, feed escarole for a week and then endive the next week, both mixed together on other weeks; throw in some rotationals or an occasional to give added variety. Note that sprouts (such as alfalfa sprouts compared to alfalfa plants) are generally lacking in useful nutritional content and should be avoided.

 Staples are meant to be fed regularly, on a daily basis
 Rotationals should be fed less often; once or twice per week at most
 Occasionals should be fed once per month at most

Seeds are a slightly different matter. Some keepers prefer to put a small bowl of seeds into the enclosure and leave it there all the time, changing it out as required or at most every couple of weeks. Others find that their uromastyx eat too much of the seeds, and only provide them as a rare treat. Again, common sense and regular monitoring are the key here.

Chemical Content

• Oxalates bind calcium, removing it from other foods so it won't be digested
• Goitrogens induce hypothyroidism, and depress thyroid function, by interfering with absorption of iodine. Restriction of iodine causes the thyroid to increase its size as it tries to filter more blood to get more iodine.
• Vitamin C can cause diarrhea at high levels; low levels are said to help reptiles cope with stress and disease.
• Acidic fruits and vegetables may cause diarrhea and toxicity
• Phosphorus can be dangerous at high levels. See Ca:P for more information on the Calcium:Phosphorus ratio.

Staples

Staple greens are greens that can be fed regularly as the basic food for the uromastyx; you should pay attention to what combinations you feed your lizard so as to keep the nutrients well-balanced. Terms like oxalates and goitrogens are explained more in the section on what not to feed, at the bottom of this page. Staple greens include the following:

(Curly) endive (Chicorium endivia) - moderate oxalates, high calcium 
variant Frisée salad (Crispum endivia)
variant Escarole (Latifolia endivia)


Nutritional Content

- Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1.9:1
- Protein 1.3%
- Fat 0.2%
- Fibre 3.1%
- Sugar 1.2%
- Water 94%


Dandelion greens (Taraxacum officinale) - high in calcium and vitamin A (140 IU/g), vitamin C and iron,moderate oxalates. It carries more iron and calcium than spinach. You can feed both flowers and leaves. Be cautious of pesticides in wild greens; be absolutely sure that the place you gather them from has been pesticide-free for at least two years.

Note: although dandelions are listed as a staple, they should be considered a moderate staple - in large quantities, they function as both a diuretic and a source of potassium and other salts, possibly causing dehydration and large deposits of snalt. Also be aware of many plants which are in fact false dandelions, and should not be fed.

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 2.8:1
-Protein 2.7%
-Fat 0.7%
-Fibre 3.5%
-Sugar 2.4%
-Water 86%

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) - plant, not sprouts , grown widely as a forage for high producing dairy cattle because it is a easily digestible fiber and for it’s high protein content.
A good source of vitamin D it contains 48 ng/g (1920 IU/kg) vitamin D2 and 0.63 ng/g (25 IU/kg) vitamin D3.

Cactus pad/leaf (various varieties) - high calcium

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 2.3:1
-Protein 0.8%
-Fat 0.5%

Cactus pear aka prickly pear (e.g., O. ficus-indica) - high calcium

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 2.3:1
-Protein 0.7%
-Fat 0.5%

Squash (marrow)

Acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo) – a source of dietary fiber and potassium

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:1
-Protein 0.8%
-Fat 0.1%
-Fibre 1.5%
-Sugar 2.2%
-Water 88%

Butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata) - high fibre, high vitamin A (78 IU/g)

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1.5:1
-Protein 1%
-Fat 0.1%
-Fibre 11.7%
-Sugar 2.2%
-Water 86%

Rotationals

Rotationals are food that is given once or twice per week or per fortnight; it is important to use your own judgement when doing so. Rotationals include the following:
Collard greens (Brassica oleracea) – high calcium, moderate oxalates

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 14.5:1
-Protein 2.5%
-Fat 0.4%
-Fibre 3.6%
-Water 91%

Raddichio/Italian Chicory (Chicorium intybus)

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:2
-Protein 1.4%
-Fat 0.3%
-Fibre 0.9%
-Water 93%

Rucola/rocket/arugula (Eruca sativa)

Watercress greens (Nasturtium officinale) - high vitamin C (4%), high vitamin A (47 IU/g), high oxalates (6:1 ox:ca)

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 2:1
-Protein 2.3%
-Fat 0.1%
-Fibre 0.5%
-Sugar 0.4%
-Water 95%

Bok Choy/Bok Choi (certain forms of Brassica rapa; see what not to feed, below) - high vitamin C, high vitamin A (30 IU/g), goitrogens

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 2.8:1
-Protein 1.5%
-Fat 0.2%
-Fibre 1%
-Sugar 1%
-Water 95%

Soaked Lentils (Lens culinaris)

Shredded carrots (Daucas carota) - high vitamin A (150 IU/g), moderate oxalates

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:1.7
-Protein 0.8%
-Fat 0.5%
-Fibre 1.8%
-Sugar 6.6%
-Water 90%

Zucchini - high phosphorus

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:4.4
-Protein 2.7%
-Fat 0.4%
-Fibre 1.1%
-Sugar 2.2%
-Water 93%

Coriander/cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) - high vitamin A (40 IU/g), moderate oxalates (50 ppm)

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1.4:1
-Protein 2.1%
-Fat 0.5%
-Fibre 2.8%
-Water 92%

Bell Pepper

Green Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) - moderate oxalates (1171 ppm) 

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:2
-Protein 0.9%
-Fat 0.2%
-Fibre 1.8%
-Water 92%

Red Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) - high vitamin C (19%), high vitamin A (57 IU/g), moderate oxalates (1171 ppm)

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:2
-Protein 0.9%
-Fat 0.2%
-Fibre 2%
-Water 92%

Yellow Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum)

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:2.2
-Protein 1%
-Fat 0.2%
-Fibre 0.9%
-Water 92%

Occasionals

Occasional greens that can be added to spice up your uromastyx' diet can include the items on this page. It is recommended to give occasional items not more than once or twice a month.
When feeding edible flowers be 100% sure that the flowers are free of all pesticides and fertilizer. If you are unsure of the origin of any flowers, do not feed them to your lizard.

Shredded green beans (many types, often Phaseolus vulgaris) - canned, moderate oxalates (312 ppm)

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1.4:1
-Protein 1.2%
-Fat 0.1%
-Fibre 1.9%
-Water 93%

Shredded green beans (many types, often Phaseolus vulgaris) – raw

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:1
-Protein 1.8%
-Fat 0.1%
-Fibre 3.4%
-Water 90%

Green peas (Pisum sativum) (raw)

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:4.3
-Protein 5.4%
-Fat 0.4%
-Fibre 5.1%
-Sugar 4.5%
-Water 79%

Sugar snap peas (Pisum sativum) (pea and pod) - moderate oxalates (60 ppm)

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:1.2
-Protein 2.8%
-Fat 0.2%
-Fibre 2.6%
-Water 89%


Mustard greens (Brassica juncea) - high vitamin C (7%), high vitamin A (53 IU/g), moderate oxalates (1287 ppm), goitrogens. Should only be fed very sparingly, and infrequently.

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio
-Protein 2.7%
-Fat 0.2%
-Fibre 3.3%
-Sugar 0.8%
-Water 91%

Turnip greens (Brassica rapa; leaves only) - high vitamin C (6%), high vitamin A (76 IU/g), moderate oxalates. Should only be fed very sparingly, and infrequently.

Nutritional Content


-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 4.5:1
-Protein 1.5%
-Fat 0.3%
-Fibre 3.2%
-Sugar 1%
-Water 91%


Romaine lettuce (Latuca sativa or longfolia) - red and green; mainly consists of water, contains little nutritional value for uros but very good for hydration. It is relatively high in oxalates, and should only be fed when high water content/rapid rehydration is required.

Flowers

As a general rule, uromastyx can safely eat any flowers which are also human-edible, which includes (but is by no means limited to) the following:

Pansies (Viola tricolor) – extracts are anti-microbial as well as have anti-inflammatory properties
Violets (Viola)- rich in vitamins A and C
Nasturtiums (Tropaeolum) – vitamin C (130mg per 100g)
Dahlia (Dahlia)
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) - rich in beta carotene, iron, calcium and vitamin A, note that it is also a moderate diuretic
Catsear/Cat's Ear/False dandelion (Hypochoeris radicata) - similiar to dandelion although less bitter
Rose petals (Rosa)
Hollyhock (Malva sylvestris)
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)
Birdsfoot Trifoil (Lotus corniculatus)
Hibiscus (Hibiscus)

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) - a great treat and an excellent source of vitamins

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 2.7:1
-Protein 1.6%
-Fat 0.1%
-Fibre 0.6%
-Water 86%

Roselle leaves (Hibiscus sabdariffa)

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 2.3:1
-Protein 3.3%
-Fat 0.3%
-Fibre 1.6%
-Water 85%

Fruits

Apple peel(all varieties)

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:1.8
-Protein 0.2%
-Fat 0.3%
-Fibre 1.9%
-Sugar 11.5%
-Water 85%

Apricot (Prunus armeniaca, also sometimes Armeniaca vulgaris) fresh - high vitamin A (26 IU/g)

Nutritional Content


-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:1.4
-Protein 1.4%
-Fat 0.4%
-Fibre 2.4%
-Sugar 9.3%
-Water 86%

Blackberries (e.g., Rubus fruticosus) - fresh, moderate oxalates, vitamin C (2%), high fibre.

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1.5:1
-Protein 0.7%
-Fat 0.4%
-Fibre 5.3%
-Sugar 7.9%
-Water 86%

Blueberries (various of the genus Vaccinium) - fresh, moderate oxalates

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:1.6
-Protein 0.7%
-Fat 0.4%
-Fibre 2.7%
-Sugar 7.3%
-Water 85%

Cherries (e.g., Prunus avium) - good source of potassium

Nutritional Content


-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:1.5
-Protein 1.1%
-Fat 0.2%
-Fibre 2.1%
-Sugar 12.8%
-Water 82%

Cranberries (Vaccinium Oxycoccos) - fresh, high fiber

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:1.3
-Protein 0.4%
-Fat 0.2%
-Fibre 2.8%
-Sugar low
-Water 87%


Figs (of the genus Moraceae) - raw, high calcium and fibre. moderate oxalates

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 2.5:1
-Protein 0.8%
-Fat 0.3%
-Fibre 3.3%
-Sugar 6.9%
-Water 79%

Grapes (of the genus Vitis) - red and green; moderate oxalates (34 ppm)

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1.4:1
-Protein 0.6%
-Fat 0.4%
-Fiber 1%
-Sugar 6%
-Water 81%

Guava (of the genus Psidium) - high fibre and vitamin C. moderate oxalates (140 ppm)

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:1.3
-Protein 0.8%
-Fat 0.6%
-Fibre 5.4%
-Sugar 6%
-Water 86%

Mango (of the genus Mangifera) - fresh, high vitamin A (39 IU/g), moderate oxalates (300 ppm)

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:1
-Protein 0.5%
-Fat 0.3%
-Fibre 1.8%
-Sugar 14.8%
-Water 82%

Nectarine (a variety of Prunus persica)

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:3
-Protein 0.9%
-Fat 0.5%
-Fibre 1.6%
-Sugar 8.5%
-Water 86%

Papaya (Carica papaya) - high calcium. high vitamin C (6%)

Nutritional Content


-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 5:1
-Protein 0.6%
-Fat 0.1%
-Fibre 1.8%
-Sugar 5.9%
-Water 89%

Peach (Prunus persica) - fresh, low oxalates. goitrogens

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:2.4
-Protein 0.7%
-Fat 0.1%
-Fibre 2%
-Sugar 8.7%
-Water 88%

Pear (Asian, Pyrus pyrifolia) - fresh, high oxalates

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:2.8
-Protein 0.5%
-Fat 0.2%
-Fibre 3.6%
-Sugar
-Water 88%

Pear (of the genus Pyrus) - high oxalates

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:1
-Protein 0.4%
-Fat 0.4%
-Fibre 2.4%
-Sugar 10.5%
-Water 84%

Raisins (of the genus Vitis) - seedless, high fibre, high sugar

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:2
-Protein 3.2%
-Fat 0.5%
-Fibre 4%
-Sugar 62% ouch
-Water 15%

Strawberries (e.g., Fragaria Rosaceae) - high vitamin C, moderate oxalates

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:1.4
-Protein 0.6%
-Fat 0.4%
-Fibre 2.3%
-Sugar 5.7% 
-Water 92%

Melon

Cantaloupe melon (European C. melo cantalupensis, or North American C. melo reticulatus) - high vitamin A (32 IU/g)

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:1.5
-Protein 0.9%
-Fat 0.3%
-Fibre 0.8%
-Sugar 6.6% 
-Water 90%

Honeydew melon (C. melo inodorus)

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:1.7
-Protein 0.5%
-Fat 0.1%
-Fibre 0.6%
-Sugar % 
-Water 90%

Watermelon (Citrullus)

Nutritional Content

-Calcium:Phosphorous ratio 1:1
-Protein 0.6%
-Fat 0.4%
-Fibre 0.5%
-Sugar 9% 
-Water 92%

Seeds

Uromastyx are generally fond of seeds. Although some keepers use seeds as substrate, it is generally recommended for health reasons to restrict the use of seeds to food items. The following seeds can be fed to an uromastyx:

White millet (Panicum miliaceum)
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius)
Clover (Trifolium)
Sesame (Sesamum indicum; but only a small amount)



What not to Feed

As a general rule, you should avoid feeding your lizard any of the following items:

 Insects
 Sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus) - these are high in fat and unhealthy for the lizard

Avoid foods with high levels of the following:

Oxalic acid - this binds calcium, removing it from other foods so it won't be digested. Foods high in oxalates include:

 Beets (Beta vulgaris)
 Kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa )
 Parsley (Petroselinum crispum)
 Pomegranate (Punica granatum)
 Carambola/starfruit (Averrhoa carambola)
 Chard (Beta vulgaris)

Goitrogens - this induces hypothyroidism, and depresses thyroid function, by interfering with absorption of iodine. Restriction of iodine causes the thyroid to increase its size as it tries to filter more blood to get more iodine. The worst offenders include:

 Soy beans (Glycine max)
 Broccoli (Brassica oleracea Italica)
 Kale (Brassica oleracea)
 Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea Gemmifera)
 Spinach (Spinacia oleracea)
 Cauliflower (variety of Brassica oleracea)
 Rutabaga/Swede (Brassica napobrassica or Brassica napus)

Vitamin C - high levels can cause diarrhoea (5000g+ per day in humans); low levels are said to help reptiles cope with stress and disease.
Acids - concerns with causing diarrhoea and toxicity
Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum, also Lycopersicon lycopersicum and Lycopersicon esculentum)
Oranges (Citrus sinensis or Citrus aurantium)
Grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi)
Phosphorus - high levels can be dangerous
Bananas (of the genus Musa)
Corn (Zea mays)
Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)

Freezing greens

When freezing green vegetables, especially leafy greens, thiamine (vitamin B1) will leach out. When uromastyx are fed over a long period of time with no extra thiamine added to their diet, a deficiency - hypothiaminosis - will occur. This causes tremors and twitches, which resembles the symptoms for Metabolic Bone Disease.


When and what to feed

Uromastyx need a combination of staples, rotationals and occasionals. Ensure that you are not feeding insects or other items included in the list of what not to feed. You should also not supply water to your uromastyx.

When to feed

Uromastyx should be fed in early to mid morning; ideally, the food should be fresh and waiting for them when they awake. The precise schedule will depend upon your individual uromastyx. If you are unable to feed your uromastyx in the morning, make sure you supply food as soon as you are able - for this reason, advance preparation of food is a good idea.

How to feed

Your uromastyx should be fed from a bowl at the cool end. The food should be cut or shredded into pieces (or ground, depending on the type of food); although uromastyx will chew larger pieces with their powerful cutting jaws, you should make sure that no piece is larger than the size of the uromastyx' head. Also make sure that the food bowl and any additional seed bowls are located where the lizard cannot easily kick sand into the bowl, or drag the salad onto a sandy substrate where sand will stick to it, causing a risk of impaction. A good idea is to have the food bowl sit atop a few raised pieces of slate or tile. Uromastyx are notoriously messy eaters.

 Special Thanks - Resources
We would like to extend our deepest gratitude to Mike Donkersgoed for assembling this information and offer a special thanks to Urowiki for granting us permission to use some of their information to improve upon husbandry methods for the Uromastyx genus.
 

Uromastyx InformationReptile Diseases

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